I’m not a master at these things, but I have a few ideas – many of which have been borrowed from others. These ideas are pertaining especially to female subjects:
If an upper arm looks bulky, maybe it’s touching the side of the body. Pay attention to this because many women are conscious about their arms you can do to move it or simply not show that arm in its widest angle. Hiding it with another object or subject’s arm/body helps. Sometimes just lifting it slightly away from the body fixes part of the problem, but then remember to take the photo from an angle so the unnatural arm position isn’t obvious.
In some cases, a wide angle lens may distort arms to make part of the arm/hand look huge. Don’t ignore this, do something about it before taking the picture. It’s a bad thing to have the hands/arms in a position that don’t look very good because they’re too BIG. They compete with the face, and if they are distorted then they also look bad by themselves.
For torsos of any weight, pay attention to the angle at which you are about to photograph the torso to see if you can identify a good bust line, leg line, etc., that can make the person look more feminine and curvy. Avoid the convex belly. Modeling basics tend to suggest bending the elbows and bringing the arms away from the torso to give the appearance of broader shoulders and show feminine curves in the waist and hips. It also “thins” the subject sometimes. However, this doesn’t work for everyone.
About double chins…the idea I have learned (borrowed) is to extend the neck. Sometimes you ask the person to extend the neck, other times lift the chin a little, and sometimes you throw in the idea of bringing the forehead out and down after the chin is lifted. Don’t ignore double chins on male or female subjects, they can both be self conscious about that. It’s much more obvious from a side view than from the front, but you can still use neck/head extension methods at certain angles without it appearing unnatural.
Just a few more things to add to my blog. Please email me if you like what you see or have suggestions. Thanks!